Cavinton - Several mechanisms have been proposed for the possible actions of vinpocetine. Cavinton has been reported to have calcium-channel blocking activity, as well as voltage-gated sodium channel blocking activity. It has also been reported to inhibit the acetylcholine release evoked by excitatory amino acids and to protect neurons against excitotoxicity. In addition, Cavinton has been shown to inhibit a cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase, and it is speculated that this inhibition enhances cyclic GMP levels in the vascular smooth muscle, leading to reduced resistance of cerebral vessels and increase of cerebral flow. In some studies, Cavinton has demonstrated antioxidant activity equivalent to that of vitamin E.
Neurology: For the treatment of various forms of cerebral circulatory disorders: post stroke conditions, vascular dementia, cerebral arteriosclerosis, post-traumatic and hypertensive encephalopathy, vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Reduction of psychic or neurological symptoms of cerebral circulatory disorders. Ophthalmology: For the treatment of chronic vascular disorders of the choroid and the retina. Otology: For the treatment of presbyacusis of perceptive type, Meniere's disease and tinnitus.
All forms of acute and chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency: TIA, reversible ischemic neurological deficiency, progressive stroke, completed stroke, post-apoplectic conditions, multi infarct dementia, cerebral arteriosclerosis, post-traumatic, hypertensive encephalopathy, etc. Chronic Cerebral Vascular Ischemia: Two PET studies in chronic stroke patients have shown that Cavinton has a significant effect in increasing glucose uptake and metabolism in the healthy cortical and subcortical regions of the brain, particularly in the area surrounding the region of the stroke. A study in 15 chronic ischemic stroke patients found that a 2-week Cavinton trial significantly increased cerebral blood flow in the nonsymptomatic hemisphere. Recent studies using Doppler sonography and near infrared spectroscopy have shown increased perfusion of the middle cerebral artery in patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease given a single infusion of vinpocetine. Acute Ischemic Stroke: Although small studies have shown that Cavinton has an immediate vasodilating effect in cerebrovascular circulation, a meta-analysis of the existing studies examining short- and long-term fatality rates with Cavinton was unable to assess efficacy. In the analysis of 8 studies in acute stroke patients (vinpocetine was administered within 2 weeks of event), only 1 study met the meta-analysis criteria. In the selected trial, 3 weeks after onset of IV Cavinton therapy, 8 of 17 Cavinton patients and 12 of 16 placebo patients were determined "dependent" (unable to live without assistance), and all were still alive. The meta-analysis authors were unable to determine a beneficial effect of vinpocetine, but did state that considering the in vitro studies and animal data, Cavinton has potential to be effective in acute stroke. Properly designed studies have not yet been conducted. For the reduction of psychic or neurological symptoms of cerebral insufficiency eg, memory disturbances, dizziness, headache, aphasia, apraxia, locomotor disorders, etc. Degenerative Senile Cerebral Dysfunction: A meta-analysis of 6 randomized, controlled trials involving 731 patients with degenerative senile cerebral dysfunction showed that Cavinton was highly effective in the treatment of senile cerebral dysfunction. Using several psychometric testing scales in addition to physical symptoms (speech and movement capacity, muscular coordination and strength, sensory-perceptual ability), the researchers were able to show a highly significant effect of Cavinton on both cognitive and motor functions. Alzheimer's Disease: Although evidence has been limited to 1 small study, the results suggest that Cavinton supplementation may not be effective as a therapy for Alzheimer's disease. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Cavinton in 15 Alzheimer patients, treated with increasing doses of Cavinton (30, 45 and 60 mg/day) in an open-label pilot trial during a 1-year period, resulted in no improvement. Ophthalmology: Treatment of vascular disorders of the choroid and retina due to arteriosclerosis, vasospasm, macula degeneration, arterial or venous thrombosis or embolism and glaucoma secondary to the previously mentioned disorders. Otology: Treatment of impaired hearing of vascular or toxic (iatrogenic) origin, presbyacusis, Meniere's disease, cochleovestibular neuritis, tinnitus and dizziness of labyrinth origin. Tinnitus/Meniere's Disease/Visual Impairment: Cavinton has been used in the treatment of acoustic trauma with subsequent hearing loss and tinnitus. Disappearance of tinnitus occurred in 50% of those who started Cavinton within 1 week of the trauma. Regardless of the time since the incident, 79% of patients had improved hearing and 66% had a significant decrease in the severity of the tinnitus. Cavinton has also been found to be effective in treating Meniere's disease and in visual impairment secondary to arteriosclerosis. Treatment of vasovegetative symptoms of climacteric syndrome. Parenteral treatment is recommended followed by oral treatment. In chronic cases, oral therapy should be applied. In hemorrhagic strokes, parenteral treatment can be started only if the acute phase is over (5-7 days).
Indications: cerebrovascular disorders, dementia
Indications: cerebrovascular disorders, vascular eye disorders
Indications: cerebral disorders
Indications: cerebrovascular disorders, vascular eye and ear disorders
Treatment of the symptoms of certain diseases associated with disturbances of cerebral blood circulation. Treatment of various forms of cerebral circulatory disorders: Post stroke conditions, vascular dementia, cerebral arteriosclerosis, posttraumatic and hypertensive encephalopathy, vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Reduction of psychic or neurological symptoms of cerebral circulatory disorders. Treatment of certain ophthalmologic (choroid and retina) and otologic (presbyacusis of perceptive type, Meniere's disease and tinnitus) diseases based on vascular disorders.