Litij karbonat - Pharmacology: Specific mechanism unknown; alters sodium transport in nerve and muscle cells and effects shift toward intraneuronal metabolism of catecholamines.
Indication: Management of bipolar disorder and manic episodes of manic-depressive illness.
Treatment of neutropenia; unipolar depression; schizoaffective disorder; prophylaxis of cluster headaches; premenstrual tension; tardive dyskinesia; hyperthyroidism; SIADH, postpartum affective psychosis; corticosteroid-induced psychosis.
Used for: Treating manic episodes in patients with bipolar disorder. It is also used to reduce the frequency and decrease the severity of manic episodes in patients with bipolar disorder. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
Litij karbonat is an antimanic agent. Exactly how Litij karbonat works is unknown, but it may work by altering the balance of certain chemicals in the brain.
Although Litij karbonat has been used for over 50 years in treatment of bipolar disorder, the mechanism of action is still unknown. Lithium's therapeutic action may be due to a number of effects, ranging from inhibition of enzymes such as glycogen synthase kinase 3, inositol phosphatases, or modulation of glutamate receptors.
Litij karbonat is a soft, silver-white metal that belongs to the alkali metal group of chemical elements. It is represented by the symbol Li, and it has the atomic number three. Under standard conditions it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element. Like all alkali metals, Litij karbonat is highly reactive, corroding quickly in moist air to form a black tarnish. For this reason, Litij karbonat metal is typically stored under the cover of petroleum. When cut open, Litij karbonat exhibits a metallic luster, but contact with oxygen quickly turns it back to a dull silvery gray color. Litij karbonat in its elemental state is highly flammable.
Litij karbonat is used to treat conditions such as bipolar disorder (manic depression) and depression. It is also used to treat aggressive and self-harming behaviour. Litij karbonat helps to stabilise your mood and helps prevent mood swings.
Oral Mania, Bipolar disorder, Recurrent unipolar depression
Adult: Dose depends on the preparation used. Doses should be adjusted to produce a serum-lithium concentration of 0.4-1 mmol/l. Camcolit® tablets: Treatment: Initiate at 1-1.5 g daily; Prevention: Initiate at 300-400 mg daily. Priadel® tablets: Treatment and prevention: Initially, 400-1,200 mg daily in 1-2 divided doses. Priadel® syrup: Treatment and prevention: Initially, 1.04-3.12 g daily in 2 divided doses. Liskonum® tablets: Treatment: Initially, 450-675 mg bid; Prevention: Initially, 450 mg bid. Doses should be divided throughout the day during the initial period; once-daily dosing may be used when serum-lithium concentrations have stabilised. Adjust initial dose 4-7 days after starting based on results of serum-lithium concentrations. Monitor serum-lithium concentrations once wkly until dosage has remained constant for 4 wk, after which monitoring may be reduced to once every 3 mth.
Child: ≥12 yr: Acute phase: Serum concentrations of 1-1.2 mEq/l. Max dose: 1.5 mEq/l. Initially, 1.8 g Litij karbonat carbonate daily as conventional capsules/tablets in 3-4 divided doses, or 30 ml (approx 48 mEq) Litij karbonat citrate oral solution daily in 3-4 divided doses. Alternatively, initially 1.8 g Litij karbonat carbonate daily as extended-release tablets in 2-3 divided doses.
Maintenance: Not established.
Elderly: ≤900 mg Litij karbonat carbonate daily. Titrate dose slowly to achieve therapeutic serum concentrations.
Maintenance: Maintain serum concentrations at the lower end of 0.6-1.2 mEq/l. CrCl (ml/min) Dosage Recommendation 10-50 50-75% of normal dose. <10 25-50% of normal dose.