Megapen - Ampicillin exerts bactericidal action on both gm+ve and gm-ve organisms. Its spectrum includes gm+ve organisms eg, S pneumoniae and other Streptococci, L monocytogenes and gm-ve bacteria eg, M catarrhalis, N gonorrhoea, N meningitidis, E coli, P mirabilis, Salmonella, Shigella, and H influenzae. Ampicillin exerts its action by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell wall. Cloxacillin is a penicillinase-resistant penicillin. It is active against gm+ve organisms including penicillinase-producing strains of Staphylococci. Cloxacillin is highly active against Staph aureus, Strep pyogenes, Strep viridans and Strep pneumoniae. It is also active against penicillinase-producing gonococci and against N meningitidis and H influenzae. Other gm-ve organisms are resistant to cloxacillin as are also methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococci.
Indications: bacterial infections
Bacterial endocarditis. Intrapartum prophylaxis against group B streptococcal infection. Meningococcal meningitis. Pneumococcal meningitis. Susceptible infections.
1. Upper and lower respiratory tract infections such as:otitis, tonsillitis,bronchitis, throat and nose infections.2. Urogenital tract infections such as:urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis and prostatis.3.Skin and soft tissue infection.4.Bone and joints infections.5.As prophylaxis of bacterial endocarditis or abscess after minor surgerySuch as: tonsillectomy, tooth extraction, as well as those who haveChanged their heart valves.
1 - Upper and lower respiratory tract infections, such as otitis tonillitis, bronchitis, throat and nose infections caused by staphylococci, strpto-cocci, diplococcus pneumonia, and H. influenza.2- Gastrointestinal infection : enterities, typhoid and paratyphoid caused by sheigella, salmonella, escherichia coli, proteus mirabilis and entero-cocci.3- Urogenital tract infection : Such as urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis caused by neisseria gonorrhea, escherichia coli, and proteus miabilis.4- In skin and soft tissue infection : Such as furunculosis, abcesses, cellu-litis and skin ulcerations, caused mostly by staphylococci.5- Bone, joint infecttions, and meningitis : Caused by staphylococci and neisseria meningitides, etc.6- As prophylaxis of bacterial endocarditis or abscess after minor surgery such as tonsillectomy, tooth extraction, as well as those who have changed their heart valves.
Cloxacillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic in the same class as penicillin. Cloxacillin was discovered and developed by Beecham. It is sold under a number of trade names, including Cloxapen and Orbenin.
Cloxacillin is used against staphylococci that produce beta-lactamase, due to its large R chain which doesn't allow the beta-lactamases to bind.
This drug has a weaker antibacterial activity than benzylpenicillin, and is devoid of serious toxicity except for allergic reactions.
It has been suggested, in one study, that increased use of cloxacillin may permit reduced use of vancomycin.